East Liverpool Historical Society

This article was originally prepared by R. B. Barth, Secretary of the East Liverpool Chamber of Commerce

Statistical Review

Form of Government--Federal.

Population--Total, 23,329; males, 11,376; females, 11,951; total colored, 501; white males of age, 6,692; white females of age, 7,211 (1930 U. S. Census). Local estimate at present, 25,000. American-born, 89.9%.

Area--4.25 square miles.

Altitude--751 feet above sea. level.

Climate--Mean annual temperature, 65 degrees F.; average annual rainfall, 17.21 inches.

Parks--2, with total of 82 acres, valued at $50,000.

Assessed Valuation--21,000,000, with $22 per $1,000 tax rate.

Bonded Debt--$946,361.94. (total)

Financial Facts--2 banks, with total deposits of $9,500,000 (June 30, 1936), and total resources of $11,100,000 (June 30, 1936). 4 buildings and loan associations, with total assets of $10,500,000 (June 30, 1936).

Postal Receipts--Approximately $115,000 (calendar year 1936). Telephones in Service-5,674.

Churches--25, representing 16 denominations.

Industry--Chief industry of city and surrounding territory, manufacturing. 62 manufacturing establishments, employing 7,000 men and 3,700 women, paying wages of 3,000,000 annually, and having products valued at $22,000,000 annually. Principal manufactured products: Semivitreous porcelain tableware, electrical porcelain, pottery supplies, brick, cooking and oven ware, and machinery.

Trade Area--Retail area has radius of 25 miles, and population of 60,000; wholesale area, radius or 25 miles, and population of 55,000.

Newspapers--1 daily and 1 weekly.

Hotels--8, with total of 330 rooms.

Railroads--2: Pennsylvania and Montour.

Highways--U. S. 30; state 7, 39, 170 and 267.

Amusements--Largest auditorium in city (legitimate theatre)- -seats 1,504 persons. 5 moving-picture theatres, with total seating capacity of 3,930 persons. 2 golf coursers.

Hospitals--1, with 109 beds.

Education--20 public schools, including 1 senior high. 1 parochial school. Number of pupils in public schools, 5,82; in parochial, 312. Number of teachers in public schools, 175; in parochial, 8. Value of public school property, $196,526.88; Parochial, $100,000.

Public Libraries--1, with 21,600 volumes.

City Statistics--Total street mileage, 140, with 45 miles paved. Miles of gas mains, 160; sewers, 45; electric street railway, 34. Number of water consumers, 5,230; light meters, 7,250; Gas meters, 5,754. Capacity of water works, 6,000,000 gallons; daily average pumpage, 3,200,000 gallons; miles of mains, 75; value of plant, $1,225,000. Fire department has 3 stations and 8 pieces of motor equipment. Value of fire department property, $150,000. Police department has 1 station and 2 pieces of motor equipment.

The Pottery Center of America

East Liverpool, located in the heart of the Ohio Valley, is appropriately called "The Pottery Center of America." The city and vicinity has six pottery concerns manufacturing general ware; four plants, making electrical porcelain and high-grade refractories; four factories devoted exclusively to the manufacture of potteny supplies; one plant producing one-fire were; three concerns which manufacture art ware exclusively; and one factory devoted to the manufacture of black walls for gas ranges. There are also several large cooperage plants producing barrels, casks, and cartons In which skillful hands pack the products of tIle Potteries for distribution to the four points of tIle compass. The U. S. forms the chief market, but large quantities of ware are shipped to Canada, the Hawaiian Islands, Cuba and south America.

The estimated value of the output of the Plants in the East Liverpool district manufacturing all types of ceramics in 1936 was approximately $22,000,000. The total investment in the plants approximates $18,000,000. The ceramic plants employ about 7,000 men and women. The skilled potters are in the foremost ranks of the highly-paid artisans of the country.

The question is often asked: "Why are there so many Potteries located in Eart Liverpool? Is it because of the clay in your vicinity? There are no local clays now used in the production of white ware that has made this district famous the world over. None of the raw products are found near East Liverpool. The clays are now shipped to the "Pottery Center" from Florida, forth Carolina, Kentucky and England. Flint in obtained from Illinois, Maryland and Pennsylvania.

Boric cold comes from the Mojave Desert in California end from Tuscany, Italy. Cobalt Is secures from Canada and Missouri; whiting from England; zinc from Missouri; and white lead from Canada. All of these products enter into the making of pottery.

The potting industry of East Liverpool was founded in 1839 by James Bennett, an English potter, who emigrated from England to America stopping at Cincinnati. There he hoard rumors that working clays were to be found in the hills surrounding East Livernool. Mr. Bennett traveled partly by river and in the latter stages of hir journey on foot, reaching the struggling town in the latter part of 1839. Bennett judged that the clays in the hills about the town would produce an excellent quality of yellow ware. He had no money, but interested other parties in his project. They constructed a plant with one small kiln and began the manufacture of yellow and Rockinghem ware.

One plant in this city still uses the clays found in the hills, for the manufacture of yellow wares. The manufacture of white ware was introduced about 1860, and this was followed by the use of under-glazed decoration. The development of the semi-vitreous china in the west Liverpool industry is said to have occurred about 1890 through the introduction of better clays, somewhat different mixtures, and harder firing. This product is, therefore, and outgrowth of the white-granite industry and is known under several different names, such or semivitreous china, semi-vitreous porcelain, semi-porcelain, end porcelain granite.

The pioneer pottery manufacturers of Eest Liverpool were the first in the world to relegate to oblivion the "potter's wheel" famed in story and song, and to introduce machinery end labor saving devices. The machinery found in the "clay shops" of the modern factory was in use in East Liverpool a decade before the English potters learned its worth and adopted it.

There are other industries affiliating with the earthen-ware trade in East Liverpool, representing a large investment. The development of electricity has created a large market for porcelain electrical fixtures end supplies. East Liverpool's electrical porcelain manufacturers were among the pioneers in this field and the business has grown amazingly. The East Liverpool concerns ship their products to all parts of the world. The pioneers in the manufacture or sewer pipe and fire-clay products in this country located near East Liverpool. Today the community has plants producing excellent paving, building and fire brick, and also has a factory manufacturing a high quality of sewer pipe.

Location and History

East Liverpool is situated in the most scenic section of the Ohio Valley, 40 miles west of Pittsburgh and 95 miles southeast of Cleveland. Its present population is approximately 25,000, end it is the center of a drawing population of some 60,000. Directly across the Ohio River, connected by a bridge is the towns of Chester and Newell, W. Va., the former with a population of approximately 3,800 and the latter with a population of approximately 2,000. East Liverpool, Chester and Newell form one community, being divided geographically by the Ohio River.

East Liverpool was settled in 1789 by Thomas Fawcett. In 1802 Fawcett laid out and named the settlement St. Clair, but, by common consort, it yes called Fawcettstown and remained so until it was laid out as Liverpool in 1816. In 1834 East Liverpool was formally incooperated, the prefix East being added to avoid confusion with a smaller settlement called Liverpool in Medina County.

General View of the City Today

Railway transportation is provided by the Pennsylvania Lines. Excellent interurban electric lines connect with cities east and west. Freight and passenger boat lines connect with all the important ports, on the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Also, it has excellent bus line connections to points east, north, west end northwest. Abtundent fuel, bituminous coal of the famous "Pittsburgh" quality, natural gas from the fields of West Virginia, and electric power in almost any quantity desired for manufacturing purposes, from one or the largest generating units in the world, located at Beechbottom, W. Wa, are some of the industrial advantages enjoyed by thin city.

The city is supplied with water from a municipally-owned mechanical filtration plant, which has a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons daily, and is used for both domestic and manufacturing purposes. Tht water, supply is taken from the Ohio 'River, three and one-fourth miles east from the center of the city. It is raised by low lift pumps to the purification plant and pumped to two reservoirs and one standpipe, from which it is distributed in three services. There are connected on this service, 5,930 weter consumers.

The city covers an area of 4425 square miles. It hen 140 miles of streets, of which 45 miles are paved, and 45 miles of sewers. The city is illuminated with electricity, some 90 miles of streets being lighted.

East Liverpool has the third largest percentage of English-speaking population among cities of the state of Ohio--90.2% of the people using the English mother Celtic tongue. The home-owners number approximately 65% of the total population.

There are two city parks in East Liverpool. One is known as Thompson Park and is beautifully situated on a hill northeast of the central section of the city. It comprises 100 acres, all of which is improved by groves, lawns, walks, drives, and flower beds. The other is a small municipal square of about two acres adjoining the grounds of the City Hospital [Skeleton Park]. . This little park affords a beautiful view of the Ohio River.

The city government of East Liverpool is under federal plan and consists of a mayor and city council. Besides the mayor and city council, there are an auditor, a treasurer, a solicitor, a department of public health, a park commission, a library commission, a civil service commission, a depository commission, a planning commission and a board of trustees of the sinking fund. The department of pubilc service has control of the water works, public construction and engineering work and the care and maintenance of the streets and alleys. The department of public safety directs the police and fire-organization and motorized. "On Jan. 1, 1926, a municipal court was established for the city.

The department of health is headed by a competent physician, who continually looks after food inspection, sanitation and the venereal clinic conducted by the city. This department also employs graduate nurse and controls the city incineration plant.

A large public library, with commodious reading rooms, is situated in the central section of the city. The rending rooms ere with reference books and the leading periodicals. Membership cards for the circulation are issued free to residents of Fast Liverpool end vicinity. The library has 21,600 volumes, besides state and Federal government publications and periodicals. It is maintained at the expense of the city.

East Liverpool has an excellent public high school and nineteen grade schools, a parochial school, a private business college and a privete kindergarten. The total enrollment in the public grade schools is 4,300, and In the high school, 1,582 students. A force of 175 pen and women instructors hews charge of the school work. The school buildings are modern structures end the high school building contains large auditorium. An athletic field and stadium have recently been added to the school holdings.

East Liverpool's financial institutions are represented by two banks end four building and loan associations. One of its loan institutions is among the largest of its type in the state of Ohio, The stockholders. include all classes of people in East Liverpool and vicinity. The bank depositors total approximately 25,000 persons, with total deposits of nearly 19,500,000. The banks are conducted by the liberal and progressive men of the town. They are always ready to extend every accommodation consistent with sound banking. The East Liverpool banks responsive to legitimate demands of business. The careful yet liberal, policy of the city's financial institutions has been a natural *actor in the development of this community.

The East Liverpool City Hospital in a modern and thoroughly equipped institution. It has an excellent staff of physicians, surgeons and nurses. The nurses' training school, connected with the hospital graduate a class of trained nurses yearly. The hospital serves the city and surrounding community in a very satisfactory and efficient manner.

An active chamber of commerce is located in this city. It is composed of a large number of representatives and public-spirited citizens, endeavoring, through organized effort, to better civic conditions and to promote and develop industry and business. The chamber encourages all legitimate business enterprises and disseminates , through the press and otherwise, information relative to the advantages of Eest Liverpool as a field for commercial end industrial activities end as a piece for residence. This organization further lends its assistance to direct public movements which have for their purposes the betterment of the community. The headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce are located in the Little Bulldog., in the heart of the City's business district.

Last Liverpool's churches have kept pace with its growth. Its twenty-five churches represent many creeds end sects. The churches are well supported, and several handsome edifices are included in the temples of ,worship. There is also a Y. M. C. A. building, representing an investment of $100,000. The Mary Patterson Memorial home costing $200,000, built to provide living quarters for working women and girls and for social activities, is one of the recent acquisitions of the city.

The retail stores in East Liverpool are so complete in merchandise, and attractive that shoppers from all the surrounding towns in the trade territory of Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia do their buying in this city. These neople find here as varied end desirable stocks as are found in cities of much larger population. A large percentage of East Liverpool's out-of-town trade is due to the Fare Refunding Association, a trade organization that has been in existence for the past twenty-two years, and the sole purposes of which is to induce out-of-town people to buy in East Liverpool.

The city has five theatres, one of which gives dramatic performances et intervals in the winter season. The others are strictly motion-picture houses.

Fraternal organizations, lodges end brotherhoods generally known and recognized throughout the country, are well represented in this city. Many own their homes, among which are the Masonic Temple, costing $50,000; the Elks Temple built at at expenditure of $70,000; the Odd Fellows Temple, which cost $70,000; the Moose Home, erected at a cost of $50,000; the Eagles Home, costing $25,000, and two country clubs which represent an investment of $180,000. These country club houses are ideally located near the suburbs of the city and are situated in the most picturesque locations in this part of the country. Nine-hole golf courses are one of the attractive features of those clubs. The city has ample hotel facilities to accommodate adequately the traveling public. The Rotary, Kiwanis and Lions clubs are three of East Liverpool's most active service organizations.

There is one large playground under the control of the Playground Association. It is centrally located and affords ample opportunity to the children for wholesome outdoor recreation and play during the warm months of the year.

The daily newspaper, "The East Liverpool Review," renders e valuable service to the community. This publication is Issued in the afternoon. In make-up and news service it is equal to the press of many cities larger than East Liverpool. A weekly newspaper, call rd "The Potters Herald," is also published in this city. It is the official organ of the trade interests.

The advantages of location and transportation facilitates that have played such an important part in the growth of. East Liverpool as an industrial center are also largely responsible for the development and prosperity of the city's wholesale and distributing interests. This is evidenced by the fact that there ere eight wholesale grocery and provision houses, two wholesale candy concerns and two wholesale hardware establishments which supply the surrounding trade territory.

East Liverpool is located on Federal Highway No. 30. This highway affords excellent road facilities to the east, and west. Four state highways also pass through the city. There are many public garages located here, and a number of them with complete workshops, equipped with all the latest devices for repairing automobiles.

Other institutions that enter into the city's daily life are the Ohio Bell Telephone Co., which renders a commendable service to 5,674 subscribers, and the Federal Building, erected at a cost of $100,000 housing the Post Office with its efficient staff of employees. Located in East Liverpool are the headquarters of the United States Potters Association, National brotherhood of Operative Potters, Columbiana County Automobile Association end County Boy Scouts Organization.

While the manufacture of ceramics constitutes the chief industry, the city has one large plant manufacturing Pottery and other types of machinery of a very high quality, a steel mill, machine shop, and foundry and knob works. The city possesses two well-equipped ice cream and ice plants, a brewery, flour and flint mills and a number of other factories manufacturing diversified products.

This locality enjoys a healthful And temperate climate, with few extremes of heat and cold. The city being built upon hills, is well drained. By reason of its topography, together with a thoroughly up-to-date sewerage system, good sanitary conditions are insured.

The city reflects the liberality end progressive spirit of the people. The social tendency is towards a sane and sensible home life The citizenship is democratic, substantial and self-respecting, with the avoidance of extravagant display.


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