In Life In the "Crockery City" 1988 Historical Calendar published by the E.L. Historical Society for the month of February one finds this little historical fact for February 27, 1896: Central School Teacher, Isabelle Little, fired for teaching from the Bible.
This article results from that little comment.
1853 - 1873
Storm Clouds were brewing in America over education in the mid 1800s to late 1800s between Protestants and Catholics. Violence broke out in some cities with injuries and death resulting. Protestants themselves frequently were divided over having public schools involved with Bible reading or study or religious instructions.
From The Second Disestablishment, Church and State in Nineteenth-Century America, Steven K. Green, Oxford University Press (2010) pp 275-76:
Harper's New Monthly Magazine, which only seven years earlier had issued a spirited defense of Protestant non-sectarianism, published an editorial in 1860 that advocated removing religious instruction from the public schools. Stopping short of calling for the expulsion of the Bible, the magazine criticized those Protestants who insisted that schools should teach religion. "The Bible question will cease to make difficulty, if the great majority who . . . insist upon having it in the schools, will give practical proof of their freedom from bigotry, and their desire to make the book a manual of piety and charity, instead of dogmatic theology or priestly ritualism." Harper's Magazine's critique generally fell on deaf ears. Non-sectarianism was viewed as a workable solution to the school question, one that also ensured the Protestant character of the nation's public schools. However, the Harper's editorial revealed that dissension was growing in the Protestant ranks.
Non-sectarianism received its first serious legal challenge in the Ohio case of Minor uv. Board of Education, the most significant Bible reading case of the nineteenth century. Taking place in Cincinnati between 1869 and 1873 but attracting national attention, the case involved some of the nation's greatest legal minds. As lawyers sparred in the courtroom, pro-and anti-Bible forces battled each other in pulpits and in the press for the fledgling soul of American public education. National newspapers reported every proceeding while Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and freethinker leaders warned of the dire consequences of an outcome going either way. When the case was finally resolved, neither nonsectarian religious instruction nor understandings of the relationship between Christianity and the state would ever be the same.
In late 1869, a newly-elected Cincinnati School Board decided to ban hymn-singing and Bible reading in the city's public schools. A conservative group brought suit against the Board to block the ban.
The issues were complicated on the one hand by a fact that the Ohio Constitution contained the following wording:
Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws, to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools and the means of instruction.
The pro Bible side argued that the board had exceeded its authority in prohibiting Bible reading because clearly, in their opinion, the state constitution not only permitted religious exercises in public school but required it.
On the other hand those lawyers faced precedent from a former Ohio Supreme Court ruling in which prohibited the state from promoting Christianity. [Bloom v Cornelius; December Term, 1853; Ohio Supreme Court]
In this particular case the pro-Bible in school side won by a 2-1 vote of the judges. However the dissenting Judge, Alphonso Taft, father of the future president and chief justice William Howard Taft, wrote his dissenting opinion which actually became pretty much the foundation of the winning ruling on appeal when the appeals court over turned the lower court's ruling and upheld the School Boards no Bible reading rule.[Board of Education of Cincinnati v. Minor, 23 Ohio St. 211, 253 (1872)]
FROM LOCAL NEWSPAPERS, SELECT ARTICLES, SEPTEMBER 1895 - MARCH 1896.
From the September 25, 1895 DAILY CRISIS :
Bible in the Schools
The Matter will probably come before the Board of Education
Young School Marm's Mandate
It caused a conflict between Herself and a pupil's Father — He Brought the Matter to the attention of the Board.
A mild sensation is brewing in the Central School Building, being nothing less than a miniature conflict between "Church and State."Church and State."
A little daughter of an uptown gentleman was, it is stated, requested by her teacher to bring her "Testament to school with her; and it is presumed the other children in that particular room received the same instruction.
The child proceeded home and told her parents of her desire to obey her teacher's order, but her father declined to permit it, telling the little girl that she could get her Bible instruction at Sunday school, and to quote, him to that effect to the teacher.
The little one did so, and the ungallant ma'am is said to have expressed her belief that the papa afore said "had no sense."
The gentleman in question declined to take the teacher's word on that point as final, however, and has asked the Board of Education if they are of the same mind as the teacher.
The matter will, it is stated, be brought up before the Board of Education at a meeting of that body in the near future. Heretofore, the school board has refrained from using the Bible in the schools, on the grounds that in their opinion the results was demoralizing — different teachers having different denominational views which they almost invariably sought to impress upon the pupils.
The case in question will be watched with considerable interest throughout the city.
From the September 26, 1895 DAILY CRISIS :
THE TEACHERS IDEA OF IT
There Was, She Thinks, No Attempt to Introduce the Bible in the schools
THE PUPILS GOT THINGS MIXED
Or Something: at any Rate the Complaint Originated in a Very Trivial Way — Miss Aguer Explains the Matter
The publication made by the Crisis last night of the complaint which had been received by the Board of Education and which the board proposed to investigate, that some of the teachers were attempting to introduce Bible study into the schools, created considerable talk about the city last night.
Several members of the Board of Education were seen and interrogated relative to prospective action on the Bible in the case. None of them would say anything definite. One member stated he had heard some rumors that one particular teacher had instructed her pupils to bring their Bibles, but as he had Not Heard Her Story, he declined to express an opinion or outline the probable action of the board. President W. L. Smith was shown the article. Said he:
"This is the first I had heard of the case. I do no know that there is anything in the report at all. If there is, it will doubtless be reported to the board at their next meeting and the body in its entirety will deal with the question as it thinks best."
The gentleman who first reported the incident to the Board of Education, James Barker, was seen, but he could give no further information than that which has already been published.
The True Inwardness.
Then a Crisis reporter made some inquiries among the school teachers; and it appears that several of them have unintentionally laid themselves liable to the same criticism.
Miss Ida Aguer, a teacher in the Central Building had been mentioned in that connection. To the reporter she said: "The only foundation in my room for such a complaint is in this wise: In the reader we are using appears several Bible stories. We have reached them in the course of the year's lessons and as they are interesting to the children and are incomplete as to the ending of the stories themselves, it struck me it would be an aid to the children's reading.
To Bring a Few Bibles
and finish out the incomplete stories from the Bible itself.
"I understand several other teachers have indulged in the same plan but so far as a systematic course of Bible reading is concerned, nothing has been farther from my intention. And as to the impolite message alleged to have been sent to the child's father, nothing of the kind occurred, at least in my room."
Owing to the lateness of the hour it was impossible to see the other teachers whose names were mentioned before the afternoon session of school.
A special thanks to Sarah Vodrey of the Museum of Ceramics for the aboute two articles from the Daily Crisis.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1896
THE BIBLE IN SCHOOL
The Board of Education Have Taken Action.
THEY DO NOT THINK IT WISE
The Patriotic Societies Sent Resolutions and the Board Answered — Mrs. Whitehead was the Only Member Voting Against the Course Adopted.
The question of whether the Bible should be read by every teacher in the public schools to the pupils have causing some commotion in recent months, and has been disposed of by action the Board of Education.
Some time ago the patriotic orders of the city set resolution to the board asking that each teacher be compelled to read the Bible to her scholars. When they were being considered Mr. Golding said that he was preparing a paper on the subject, and asked that definite action be delayed until could have it completed. This was done. The vote showed that all the board agreed with Mr. Golding except Mrs. Whitehead. The document was sent to the societies who was accepted. Then it seemed the societies sent personal letters to the teachers, asking them if they would not read the Bible there scholars, and received many replies. In that condition the matter has remained until now the correspondence is made public. Dr. Lee spoke of it in his sermon at the First Presbyterian Church on Sunday, and the matter has been discussed a great deal on the streets. First communication sent to the board is dated November 25, and asked the Bible be read in the schools. It is signed by the Junior mechanics, the Senior Mechanics, Sons of America, Daughters of Liberty and Daughters of America. To this the more replied as follows:
Your petition has been very carefully and thoughtfully studied by the board, and feeling the gravity of its contents and appreciating the sincerity and earnestness of the petitioners, has entitled it to be the best judgment attainable through the board. And it has awaited action in order to give the directors full and ample time for thought and study.
The board will admit the Bible to be the best book in man's possession and written by inspiration of God, for man, and his precepts and teachings were understood and practiced to be a guide to the highest citizenship here on earth, and a title to the possessions in the world to come.
The petition asks that the Bible you read in all the rooms. We assume it to imply that it shall be read in regular order and without comment or study, as you are aware, our teachers are not examined in Bible knowledge, who could not be expected to teach it.
We note that the Bible scholars who are responsible for the Scripture lessons taught and are Sabbath schools, and the notes, comments and helps therewith, have taken many times as much space — in printing matter furnished — for the latter as for the Scripture lesson itself; and it is further noted among Bible scholars there is a great difference of opinion as to the meaning of passages, and possibly more comments have been written upon the Bible than upon any other book has been written, and it can be said, safely, that more study is put upon it than upon all other books combined; and with all the efforts to its translation construction and English, we find there is disagreement in its interpretation and so we have different denominations, faiths and creeds.
But all, agreeing the Bible to contain any beautiful and adifying stories get told in modern and aimp's form, has led many scholars to write Bible stories for children.
But the effort has been to reduce it — as far as possible — to one syllable or primer form, further added by copious illustrations, so that children such as we find in our public schools will enjoy and be profited by its reading.
This leads us to think the Bible itself, if read in regular order and most were school rooms, and without comment or instruction, would be without profit.
You you may ask, why are not our teachers qualified for Bible instructions? Our answer is, it has not been required of them.
A common school is understood to be a public institution where the common branches are taught, such as the rudimentary use and application of the English language and open for the admission of children of all citizens so entitled.
And are teachers are mostly graduates of our own schools, teaching only what they have been taught.
In our present course of study we do not find any part in the least objectionable to any sect, and in every branch of study the textbooks are written to conform suitably to each grade and age a pupil.
We find among our pupils a number from different Christian faiths and we find among our graduates and teachers those of every denomination who are able instructors and supporters, and we are pleased to report among all classes — both teachers and pupils — the greatest harmony. This, we are afraid, could not be said if Bible reading was made compulsory.
And, further, it can almost be taken for granted that it would exclude all teachers of the Catholic and Hebrew faith and possibly some pupils, and this we think would be ungenerous and under the existing conditions unchristian.
And will not charity and kindness toward our neighbors bring more glory to the Almighty and a more delightful unity among human society?
We are inclined to think that the framers of our state constitution foresaw and sought to prevent disagreement as to adjust use of the public educational funds.
And in article first, section 7, also in article 6, section second of our state constitution, we interpret the clearly point to prevent sectarian bias in our schools.
And this we think is any taxpayer for school support the right to object to another Bible than his to be preferred.
Wherever we find an absolute liberty and Bible instruction as in our privately endowed colleges, there we find them denominationallly endowed so that schools may be selected in harmony with each faith and doctrine.
In our public schools every man is compelled by law to support the system, the idea being, we think, to compel men to be intelligent, and if so, better citizens, the choice of religion being left free as a matter of conscience.
We now have in our schools the beginning of what, the board hopes as soon as our funds will admit, to make an extensive library.
We desire to place on its shelves the sacred books of all nations so that the student may, if he desires, become acquainted with the religions of all ages, Mohamedanism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Judaism, the Christian religion through the Catholic and Protestant translations along with the moral philosophies of pagan writers all to be read as literature and history.
And if the time should come when all sects, through a commission, can meet and agree upon a textbook made up of portions of gems from all the different Scriptures or sacred writings such a book shall receive our hearty endorsement; but for the present, under existing conditions affairs, we think it unwise to grant the petition asking the Protestant Bible shall be read, compulsory, and all the rooms of our schools.
On January 18 the board received from a union meeting of the societies the statement that the document had been filed, and after this the letters were sent to the teachers. The Letters asked teachers to read the Bible without comment to their scholars, and were assigned by representatives of the five societies. The statement is made by members of the board that before taking the action given above they consulted the highest educational authority.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , East Liverpool, Ohio, Friday, February 7, 1896
HE ASKED QUESTIONS
Superintendent Sanor Submitted a Long List
TEACHERS ARE TO ANSWER
He Wants to Know Whether They Read the Bible in Their Rooms — Every Phase of the Questions Covered by Many Questions — Individual Answers Wanted
Superintendent Sanor has given the Bible in the schools matter another turn by a list of questions calculated to draw from each teacher just what she had been and is doing on this line.
The lists were presented to the teachers yesterday afternoon and the teachers were asked to answer without consulting anyone, full and frankly. The first wanted to know if the Bible was read as an opening exercise, and if the teacher had ever done so since being employed here. The date of when it was commenced is asked, and if read then "the practice ceased" comes next. "Did or do you read it without comment?" is the next question, and information is desired regarding the attention given by the children. The teacher is asked how she knows they understand it, and is required to give chapters or part of the Bible that have been read. The reason for reading it, if they do, and the reason for not reading it, if not, is asked, and the superintendent wants to know if the Bible is ever used as a reference book in the history and literature, and if the teacher has many occasions to refer to it for that purpose. They are asked to tell if they encourage pupils to memorize gems from the Bible as from all literature, and what Psalms or other selections they have committed as literature. What Bible stories have been read in school to the children is another question, and what Bible stories have the pupils read in a regular or supplementary readers is another. Then comes the most important question of the lot. "What, in brief, do you understand to be the position of the Board of Education on this question?" is the way it is put in it is followed by, "Are your regular and supplementary books permeated with the central religious truths — i.e., the relation of man to his Creator and his fellow man."
That ends the list, and those who read it cannot but see that an answer to each question will bring all the information that could well be gathered on the subject. Superintendent Sanor was seen by a NEW REVIEW reporter today, and did not seem inclined to discuss the matter at great length. He said that he presented the questions to the teachers for his own private information. Different parties have frequently asked him questions and he could not answer because he did not at that moment possess the knowledge If the board asked him for light on the question now in hand, he will then be able to give it. He wants to know what the teachers have been doing on this line.
THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , East Liverpool, Ohio, Monday, February 10, 1896
THE BIBLE QUESTION
Rev. Dr. H. H. George Addresses a Large Audience
In the Presbyterian Church
The First Presbyterian Church was crowded last night, it being a union meeting of the First Presbyterian and the First United Presbyterian congregations to hear Rev. Dr. H. H. George on questions of moral reform.
Dr. George is a powerful speaker of unusual ability. He has had 25 years experience in his work. He was for 19 years president of Geneva College and has traveled extensively in Europe. He is, in this country, one of the highest authorities on the subject of moral reform. A very deep interest was manifested throughout the entire service. Anyone who attended that meeting would understand that the question of the Bible in the schools is not a dead question and that the school board was emphatically wrong in supposing that the Christian people are asleep in regard to the matter, or do not want the Bible in the public school. We give a full report of Dr. George's speech, because there will, no doubt, be many who could not attend, and who would like to read the words of the great orator.
Doctor George began by saying that there are only two theories of government — - the secular theory, which regards the government only as a Corporation for the transaction us certain business. This he called the left-handed theory. The other is the theory that God is the author of government.
Referring again to the secular theory, he took as an example of bank. Take one of your banks in East Liverpool. You go in today, you go out tomorrow. It's a purely voluntary act. But you are born into a government whether you want to be or not. You can't help it. If you travel to the islands of the sea you are still under some government. It is not a voluntary act. Who ever heard of a bank taxing people for the support of the schools? Yet a state does this and has a right to do it. Whoever heard of a Corporation — a bank, arresting a man for committing a crime, trying him and then taking him to the gallows and hanging him till he is dead? But a state does this and has a right to do it; for it gets its right from God; then there is a vast difference between the secular theory of government and the divine plan that God has given. But let us look a little further into this theory. Let us put the Bible and God out of the schools. Then to be consistent, you must take prayer out of Congress. One of the most impressive scenes I have ever looked upon is when the clock strikes 12 to see that great body of Congress rise and stand reverently while they are led to the throne of grace in the prayer of the chaplain. Now, to be consistent, we must put prayer out of Congress, for that is an act of worship. Then you must stop the religious services of our seamen, if this is a purely secular government — only a company of people banded together to do certain business. The chaplain is paid out of your money and mine to minister to the needs of poor, sick and dying seamen. We must stop all that if this nation is only a Corporation for the transaction of certain business, for this is a religious act.
Then, to be consistent, you must put the oath out of the courts of justice. What is an oath? It is the most solemn of all acts of worship — more solemn I believe than the communion service, where you partake of the broken body and shed blood of the Savior. It is a promise with hand uplifted before God that what you say you are willing to meet at the judgment bar of God — - if true, to receive a reward, if false to be judged for it. But the oath must be put out we take the secular theory that the Bible and God must be put aside.
Then the Bible must be put out of the schools, if we accept this secular theory of government. Now you build a schoolhouse. I suppose some schoolhouse is have been built without very much related. Then you get your textbooks. They must not have the name of God in, for we have put the Bible and God and that sort of thing out of the school. But how are you to get God out of the textbooks? Only a short time ago they tried it in New York City. The directors of the school board took the books home and tried to cut out the references to God until they had such ragged, fragmentary books that they themselves were ashamed of and took them away and burned them. When you cut out the references to the Bible and to God, you have a ragged thing with but little left, except the two covers, and that ought to be burned. I would nearly as soon have a book made up of the gems from the sacred writings of the heathen religions as that ragged thing. Now you have got the Bible out of the schools and you employ a teacher who is not to teach anything about God or the Bible. Well, let us see. There is a class of bright boys, I see some of them here tonight, they began with spelling. They spell words of one syllable — - right, wrong, good, bad. Now that we ask, "what does right mean?" The teacher looks about for a definition. He dare not go to God or the Bible, when they are put out of the school; so in looking about he sees that a number of years ago it was right in the south to hold slaves and the same thing was wrong in the north. Polygamy is right in Utah and wrong in East Liverpool. So both the teacher and scholar are getting more and more confused. Then they call in Webster and after several definitions he says: "Right is conformity with the conditions of man and the will of God." But God and the Bible are put out the schools, so Mr. Webster you must go out. So we have Webster out of the schools. Then there is no definition of right and spelling must go out of the schools.
Take astronomy. And here we have our class of boys a little larger now. How far is the sun? Surely there cannot be much religion in finding out how far the sun is from the earth. But the bright boy asks, "Who made the sun? How did it get up there, and what is it doing?" So the teacher says: "I know, but I dare not tell. We have put the Bible and God out of the schools. I don't dare tell." So astronomy must go out of the schools.
Then take U.S. History. Surely you can teach that without any reference to God and the Bible. What is history? Stonewall Jackson fought such a battle at such a time. This happened on such a day. Is that history? No, that is the stuff almanacs are made of. That is mere annals. History is finding the cause and then seeing how it works, then forming it, shaping and welding it, until you have one great system, the cause to the effect. Well then take the history of the United States, and the first thing you read about is the Puritans, the Pilgrim fathers. And the first 100 pages of every US history that is fit to be read is about the state and God's dealing with His people. Then all the succeeding history is permeated with the Bible and God. So US history must go out if God and the Bible go out of our schools. Now there is one little thing I understand can be taught in schools without the Bible or God. That is writing. Writing is merely a mechanical action, like sawing a board off — - like Blind Tom, the pianist, who could play wonderfully though he knew scarcely enough to eat his own dinner. Some of the greatest scholars are the poorest writers and some of less than average ability are the best penmen. It is merely mechanical. See how poor a thing merely secular theory is. Now we have two enemies to our public schools. The first of these is the Roman Catholic Church. I say it in all kindness to the Catholics. That church goes on the theory that the church is above the state and has a right to dictate to the state; there can be no more dangerous fallacy. The state has a right to educate her subjects.
The other enemy is secularism. This is a very dangerous enemy. The cry is, you must not have the Bible in the schools.
Now this is what put the Bible out of the schools. I will stop long enough to give you the history of the case. It was in Cincinnati about 20 years ago. I was there at the time. The school board was one that perpetuated itself. When one member died or moved away another was appointed in his place. There was an infidel and a Jew on the board. They watched and got other Jews or infidels on until they had a majority. Then while Cincinnati slept, the Board said the Bible should not be read. The next night all the churches were lighted, and all the ministers thundered against the action of the board.
Some good man got out an injunction against the action of the board. It was carried to the supreme court, where three judges decided that the word "Religious," which is in our State Constitution, means the Christian religion, and therefore there is authority in our Constitution for the reading of the Bible. It was then appealed by the board to the supreme court at Columbus. Joe West looked at the Constitution, saw that word, "Religion," and decided that it meant "man-religion," a term never heard of from the creation and never heard of since. "Man-religion!" If he had said horse-religion he might have found some to agree with him, for we have at least heard of horse sense. Judge West then decided that there is no authority in the Constitution for the reading of the Bible and that it can be left entirely with the various school boards, and that is the law of the state of Ohio today.
Now in regard to the report sent out by your school board, I was very sorry to see it. I do not know the men who prepared it. I suppose they are good men, I would not know them if I were to meet them on the street; but I am sure they did not mean what they said, and I do not think they understand the far-reaching importance of their works. It was reported in the Rochester and Pittsburgh papers that the Bible had been put out of the schools of East Liverpool. The Christian Statesman, of Pittsburgh, will have a discussion of this subject of the Bible being put out of the schools in your city.
My friends, you have before you one of the greatest of all struggles. If you want the Bible in the schools you must see to it in the election of members to the school board. This is a mightier struggle then that against slavery. Are you going to allow a selection of germs from the books of the heathen religions to stand by the word of God. Have you come to that? Much as I love our common schools, and no one can love them more than I do, I would rather see them dynamited, blown to the moon in fragments, than that the Bible should be removed from them."
In closing the speaker said: "There is now before the Congress of the United States, a proposed amendment to the Constitution, providing that God be acknowledged as the only sovereign, Christ as the only king and the Bible as highest law of the land; and that petitions will be circulated soon for signatures to be sent to the Congress urging the same."
At the close of the meeting many friends, teachers of our schools and others came forward to speak with Dr. George. It was a great meeting, and long to be remembered by everyone present.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , East Liverpool, Ohio, Monday, February 10, 1896
Board of Education
Interviewed By a Representative of the News Review
Regarding the Terrible Question
Some Members Of The Board Readily Submitted To Be Interviewed And
Expressed Their Views Without Hesitation, While Others Absolutely Refused To
The following is the opinion of W. L. Smith respecting the reading of the Bible in the public schools of East Liverpool.
"I am opposed to the reading of the Bible in the public schools, and will not sanction any move in that direction. The children of parents of various denominations have rights which should be taken into consideration. They are taxpayers, and this is a republican form of government — - not a monarchy. I believe that the introduction of the Bible would have a tendency to sow discord among this class of people. I would not hesitate to wager a goodly sum that one-half of those who signed the petition to have the Bible read in the schools do not read it to their children at their homes. Charity begins at home and I believe in being consistent in all things."
George Owen was interviewed by a News Review representative and responded:
"The action of the board was simply on the resolutions presented by the societies. I know nothing, personally, about the actions or opinions of the ministers of the various churches respecting the matter. If the citizens and taxpayers vote on the subject, and a majority of them vote in favor of the Bible in the public schools, I am with this majority, on the principle that the majority rules."
Mrs. Whitehead when seen said: "I am in favor of the Bible being read in the schools under all circumstances. When I voted against the resolutions I understood it was to be the final action of the board in the matter."
Mr. Nellis and Mr. Golding, when asked for their views, stated that they did not want to be quoted on the matter.
I. N. Taylor did not desire to be quoted, further than stating that this decision of the board is final on the resolutions and that he did not know how the ministers of the city stood on the subject. He further stated that the board had not consulted authorities as per the statutes.
THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , East Liverpool, Ohio, Monday, February 10, 1896
"Shall it be read
"Shall it be read in the public schools of East Liverpool, by the teachers of said schools," is the question now agitating the public mind, and consideration of this fact, much of the space of our columns is devoted therein. Readers of the NEWS REVIEW will bear in mind the fact that the question is "shall the Bible be read," and not "shall it be taught." In other words, is the Bible the word of God to be read to the children of the public schools, or is it to be excluded. Would the reading of the book to holy writ, the gift of inspiration, be conducive of good or evil? One member of the Board of Education, Mr. W. L. Smith, is quoted as saying that the reading of the blessed book might engender discord and strife, as parents representing different denominations send their children to the public schools. A noted minister of East Liverpool, consulted with upon this phase of the subject, tersely said "There is no denominationalism in view. We want the word of God read in the schools — not taught — as in the latter case there would be confusion worse con founded. Let the children hear the precious messages of the master. There is nothing but good — not the shadow of evil — and I am simply amazed at the stand taken by the Board of Education."
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , East Liverpool, Ohio, TUESDAY, February 11, 1896
SHE WANTED TO KNOW
The question of the barring of the Bible from public schools of East Liverpool has created quite a stir throughout this section, and the action of the school board has been heralded all over the land. The children are discussing the affair, as and evidenced by the following conversation between mother and child. A charming little daughter, bright and wipsome, who has had the Bible read in her home and has been taught by Christian and God loving parents,that it is the book books.
"Mamma, why do they wish the Bible kept out of our schoolrooms and East Liverpool? Is it not the very best book in all the world as papa and you have taught us?"
"Yes, my darling, it is the book of books. It is the word of our heavenly father. Given unto men for their control and guidance; given to humanity to keep their lives from evil and to teach them the way to heaven."
"But mama, is it not good also for the children in the schools? Some of the children do not have the Bible read in their homes, will they have told me so. Will it not do those children good if they hear it read, just as it does good men and women?"
"Yes, my little girl, the reading of the precious word will do them much good, and I pray my heavenly father that, and his wondrous wisdom, the children may have the Bible read to them in our public schools. Don't worry over the matter darling. Just take the matter to Jesus and ask Him that he will guide aright the members of the school board so that they may be glad to have God's word read to those little ones who do not hear it in their homes."
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, STATURDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1896
THE BIBLE QUESTION
Must Discontinue Reading It in the Schools
They refused to comply with the edict and the outcome may prove interesting. A matter of principle with some of the teachers.
the Bible question in schools again comes up for warm discussion.
The action of the board in regard to this matter has apparently been interpreted by superintendent Sanor as an objection to the reading of the Bible in the schools, and accordingly he has notified a number of teachers who a been in the habit of reading it to their scholars, to desist. This notification caused quite a commotion, and a few the teachers positively refused to comply with the new edict, claiming the privilege of reading the Bible was always accorded to them, and that they would continue to read it in the future as they had done in the past, regardless of what might follow. The superintendent argued the matter further with the teachers, but they remained obdurate, and said that it was a matter principle with them, and that under no consideration would they obey the ruling. One the teachers was seen and said that she felt perfectly justified in the standard she had taken; and she believed that the majority of citizens would bear her out of this, and if her resignation was demanded by the board, that there were other avenues of employment she would follow. She also stated that some of the teachers in anticipation of an antagonistic attitude by the board, have taken the necessary precaution of making applications to teach in out-of-town schools, lest their resignations be demanded.
at the opening of school a vote was taken by the teachers of the central building in order to ascertain what their sentiments were regarding this question; the result showed that but one teacher was arrayed in opposition to the reading of the Bible. A few of the teachers who were enjoined to discontinue the reading of the Bible did not take the decided stand that others did, but complied, fearing the consequences that otherwise might follow. It was also stated that the textbook containing extracts from the Bible be used instead of that book, but this demand was also refused by the teachers. The privilege to referred to the Bible in a historical sense is permitted. One of the teachers was very indignant at the attitude assumed by some members of the board. She termed them figureheads; she had heard it one member expressed himself that he would vote with the majority; she roundly scorched him for not having an opinion of his own, and added further that it was a pity there wasn't a few more lady members on the board, who had the courage of their convictions. The end is not yet.
And now we have the assurance that the book of holy writ is not to be read in the public schools of East Liverpool by the teachers, as superintendent Sanor evidently understands this to be the decision of our Board of Education. We have this information directly from one of the teachers, a lady whose veracity cannot be questioned, and who has been in the habit of reading the book of books to her pupils. The next question at issue will probably be: "Can the teachers or pupils take the Bible with them to school, if they so desire?" The matter has caused a decided sensation in the city and will not be cried down. A large number of staunch and conservative citizens have interviewed the management of the NEW REVIEW on this subject, and they denounce, in no measured terms, the action of the Board of Education respecting the Bible question. The outlook is that those who advocate reading of the inspired volume in the public schools will not let the matter rest, and as their number is legion, and they consider the subject one of vital import to the community at large, believing that the reading thereof is conductive of good, while the barring of the blessed book is a measure of evil, calculated to please, to the heart, those who loved darkness rather than light. There are good men and women in our midst who argue against the reading of the Bible to the pupils, on the ground that denominationalism would be brought into play; but the number is comparatively small, and there would be no danger such a result, as the Bible would simply be read, not commented upon; and if there existed passages which the superintendent would not want read to the children, then could the superintendent issue orders to that effect. What's the matter with the Bible?
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1896
THE GREAT QUESTION
Should the Bible Be Read in Our Public Schools?
Rev. R. B. Whitehead Discusses
The Matter and Brings Forward Proof and Authority, Divine and Human,
Demonstrating the Fact That, from This Standpoint, the Book of Books Cannot
Be Excluded toward or No Board of Education.
There is politics and politics, and there is a difference between the preacher-politician and the preacher preaching politics. There is a "dirty pool of politics," two or three of them, that no man has the right to dabble in; and various clean politics, the dignified science of good government, in which it is just as honorable and religious to take part as it is to take part in a Sabbath school convention, to pray, to deliver a sermon on the fatherhood of God or the brotherhood of man.
"No function of the church in relation to everyday life," says Cannon Farrar, "would be more legitimate than that of intermingling with political life, so as to ennoble its aspirations and improve its true method."
It is the imperative duty of every minister to take a decided, active part in forming public opinions and shaping the conduct of the people. You will remember the priesthood of the Mosaic economy Jesus, supreme model of preachers, denounced in scathing terms Scribes, Pharisees and rulers of His people, and held up their practices to the light for the scorn of all good men. "Let us alone," was the cry of the day. Peter, Paul and John, with a multitude of successors, followed the example of the Master. Huss, Savanarola, Martin Luther, John Knox or political agitators and political reformers.
The sound of Luther's hammer nailing his 95 theses on the door of Wittenberg church has not ceased to reverberate wherever hands are tied or feet shackled, or struggling liberty looks up to the stars in hope, or by faith wings its flight to the throne of God. Look at the New England preachers; for 200 years they continued this agitation. There was Cotton, Tucker, Parsons, Hitchcock, Langdon, Mahew, Stillman, Cooper, Payson, Gordon, Howe and a host of others political preachers. The preacher would be derelict in his duty should he refuse to share the obligations and privileges which rests upon his fellow citizens. He must be an example and illustrate the highest type of patriotism, loyalty and righteousness; must be a leader, or he would be of little use. Still further he must be a reformer. These will take him into the realms of politics and he can't avoid discussion of great underlying principles that are essential to the good government and peace and prosperity of this country. How glad I am to be in such glorious company and to take on such a glorious cause.
Great interest has been awakened by the recent utterances of our school board concerning the Bible in our public schools. If the patriotic orders, ministers of the gospel and good citizens had remained silent, the 20 years history of the schools boards of this city would have been repeated. But, thank God, history does not always repeat itself, and our earnest prayer is that every patriotic, liberty-loving citizen may see to it that past history, in present achievements, may be redeemed from its mistakes. We should assume, in this discussion, that our Board of Education is honest in its opinion, and I am glad to know, from personal knowledge, that some of its members are open for conviction and are ready for more light. Therefore we say, in classical terms, "Turn on the light." In order that the speaker may not be charged with verdancy, want of experience and knowledge in the practical affairs of life, whose sole duty it is to "preach the gospel of Christ and attend the wants of the members of his own congregation," we quote copiously from men whose great learning, matchless wisdom and broad experience cannot be questioned for one moment by any fair-minded person. An eminent thinker has said recently: "No state has heretofore attained permanent life without some faith in a higher than human power. Something above man to which man is subject has always been a recognized bond of society. The assumption, therefore, that the American Commonwealth occupies a position of indifference to all religion is contradicted by the facts of our history, other laws, and by all sound philosophy."
Let us look a little further. When De Tocqueville, 40 years since, returned to France, and reported in permanent form the results of his wise and philosophic study of our institutions, he said: "Although the travelers who have visited North America, differ on many points, they all agree in remarking that morals are for more strict there than elsewhere, it is evident that, on this point, the Americans are very superior to their progenitors, the English."
"The new states must be religious in order to be free. Society must be destroyed unless the Christian moral tie be strengthened in proportion as the political tie is relaxed; and what can be done with a people who are their own masters, if they be not submissive to Deity? It cannot be doubted that in the United States the instruction of the people powerfully contributes to the support of the Democratic Republic; and such must always be the case because I believe, where the instruction which in light with the understanding is not separated from the moral education which amends the heart."
This sects which in persist in the United States are innumerable. They all differ in respect to the worship which is due to the creator; but they all agree in respect to the duties which argue from man to man. Christian morality is everywhere the same Christianity, by regulating domestic life, regulates the state. Every principle of the moral world is fixed and determinate. Religious zeal is warmed by the fires of patriotism."
"The greatest part of British America was peopled by men who after having shaken off the authority of the Pope, acknowledged no other religious supremacy. They brought with them into the new world a form of Christianity, which I cannot better describe than by styling it a democratic and republican religion. This contributed powerfully to the establishment of the republic, and a democracy in public affairs and, from the beginning, politics or and religion contracted an alliance which has never dissolved."
The facts here stated have to do with the discussion of the Bible in our schools, always the permanence of republican government is wrapped up in Christian morals, as applied to our common in higher education. Our Pilgrim fathers, refugees from civil and religious persecution, gave us a goodly heritage and left to us, their successors, a princely legacy, to perpetuate, for all time to come, the Protestant Christian religion.
Let us inquire what is the state? Blackstone said: "for when civil society is once formed, government at the same time results of course, as necessary to preserve and keep that society in order." Cicero said: "Law is nothing else but right reason derived from divinity and government, an emanation of the divine mind." Edmunds Burke said: "all dominion over man is the effect of divine disposition. It is bound by the eternal laws of Him that gave it, with which no human authority can dispense."
Scriptures. Romans xiii 1-7: 1. Let every soul be subject unto the higher power. For there is no power but God; the powers that be are ordained of God.
2. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.
3. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same.
4. For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid, for he beareth not the sword in vain; for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him to do with evil.
5. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience's sake.
6. For, for this cause pay the tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.
7. Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
The state is therefore the power of God, ordained for the good of man. For what does the state exist? Good of man. The very idea and origin of our government is to afford opportunity for the development and protection of man as a moral and social being. Education consists in a symmetrical development of the whole man, for the purpose of his creation. What purpose? To glorify God and enjoy him forever. Every child has a three-fold nature, body, mind and soul, and these dwell as an inseparable unity during life. Therefore the state, as a symbol and embodiment or morality, is a necessity to man's moral nature. This state is obliged to Christianity as vital to its own existence. We believe that our schools, as representative of the state, should see to it that body, mind and spirit have symmetrical development. But if all three can't be developed symmetrically, we shall receive the most attention? You would naturally expect me as a minister to say, "why, moral side;" and you are correct.
But I am not alone in this opinion. The best educators, ancient and modern, argue that the forming of character which implies power to act rightly, efficiently and wisely, is the end and aim of a true education and admit the uselessness of culture without character.
Among those who declare that forming and developing character the chief business of our public school life, our personages of no less fame than Dr. William Harris US Commissioner of Education; Dr. Draper superintendent public schools New York City; Dr. Seaver, superintendent, public schools of Boston and Dr. Snyder of Colorado.
But let us give added weight by quoting verbatim other authorities gain a Webster, in his argument against the Girard will, said: "In what age, by what sect, where, when, by whom, as religious truth been excluded from the education of youth? Nowhere; never. Everywhere, and at all times, it has been regarded as essential. It is of the essence, of the vitality of useful instruction."
Gov. Rice, of Massachusetts, recently said: "I lift up a warning voice with respect to the inadequacy and perils of our modern system of one-sided education, which supposes it can develop manhood and good citizenship out of mere brain culture."
Dr. Schaff says: "Intellectual education is worth little without virtue, and virtue must be supported and fed by piety, which binds men To God, inspires them with love to their fellow-man, and urges them on to noble thoughts and noble deeds. A self-governing democracy which does not obey the voice of conscience, and own God as its ruler, must degenerate into mobocracy and anarchy."
"Despotism," says De Tocqueville, "may govern without faith; but liberty cannot."
Victor Cousin, the profoundest of French philosophers, in an address before the Chamber of Peers, maintained that "any system of school training which sharpened and strengthened all the intellectual powers without at the same time affording a source of restraint and counter-check to their tendency to evil, by supplying moral culture and religious principle, was a curse rather than a blessing."
The wise man said: "To educate the mind of a bad man, without correcting his morals, is to put a sword into the hands of a maniac."
John Locke, philosopher: "If virtue and a well-tempered soul be not got and settled so as to keep out ill and vicious habits, languages, and science, and all the other accomplishments of education will be to no purpose but to make the worse or more dangerous man."
Prof. Atwater, of Princeton, says: "Morality enters into the very being of the state, as the impelling and the final cause of its formation. Its very end is to "promote the prevalence of justice by self-imposed laws"- laws imposed in the exercise of its own free activity by its own constituted authorities, and not by any alien power."
There was never a time in the history of public school life when we were as anxious as now to save our public schools from proselyting influences. Never a time when the teaching profession has reached such unanimity of opinion that more dissemination of knowledge is of slight value to the nation, compared with the quickening of moral impulses and now the pendulum, which has swung to the extreme of secularization, has already turned back to moral development."
To require that literature and morals be taught and then forbid the use of the best book on morals and noblest literature the world has ever seen, seems more worthy of the darkest ages than nineteenth century civilization.
When you take out of our government the Christian religion and the morality it teaches, you have nothing but a rotten old Hulk left; a petrid carcass whose noxious breath reaches the very throne of God.
But the brain and brawn of the people agree on one thing. Morals must be taught in the public school. This is the verdict of all except a few secularists and infidels. But suppose our schools to be secularized; even then it would not meet the claims of these, in the old European controversy of godless liberalism and Popery would be renewed. But a new form of the old fight raises its head on these free shores, and Liberalism and Popery have joined hands for the exclusion of the Bible.
The Catholic Church, for the sole purpose of making our schools secular and then crying out, as a defense for the church's attitude on parochial schools, "your schools are godless;" and still further say, as well expressed by The Catholic World, a paper of authority in the Catholic Church:
"We, of course, deny the competency of the state to educate, to say what shall or shall not be taught in public schools, as we deny its competency to say what shall or shall not be the religious belief and discipline of its citizens. We, of course, utterly repudiate the popular doctrine, that so-called secular education is the function of the State. The rule of allowing only our supposed common Christianity to be taught in schools does not solve the difficulty, or secure to the Catholic his freedom of conscience. Religious liberty consists in the unrestrained freedom and independence of the Church to teach and govern all men and nations, princes and peoples, rulers and ruled, in all things enjoined by the teleological law of man's existence. Before God, no man has a right to be of any religion but the Catholic, the only true religion, the only religion by which man can be raised to union with God in the beatific vision. The exclusion of the Bible would not help the matter. This would only make the schools purely secular, which is worse than making them purely Protestant; for as it regards the state, society, morality, all the interests of this world, Protestantism we hold to be far better than no religion."
Therefore, allowing the introduction of what is common to all Christians, in the instructions in the public schools, will not satisfy Romanists. The Atheists and infidels ground is so well known we need not discuss their objections so leaving these two out of the question, for the time being, we come back to the questions of the people and wise teachers agreement of morals. But you say, what system of morals shall we use? Certainly not Catholic, for by their own words they stand condemned, and their claim admitted would be a flagrant violation of all present constitutional provisions concerning religious equality of the people, and the support of sectarian education. The other class we may pass over, for they make no claim on a system of morals. Then shall it be Muhammadanism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism, etc.? "No," you say. I say, "Amen." What are we, then? And what book is their system of morals? We are a Protestant Christian Nation. The Bible is our standard of morals.
We are brought to this conclusion by the inevitable, and inexorable logic of events and decrees. Historically, we are a Christian nation. The divine authority of the Bible is acknowledged in the very make up of the government. Every officer from president down to the lowest official, is inducted into office under the solemnity of an oath on that book. Christian religion permeates all our institutions, and it is the standard of right and wrong and morals. Government requires Christian oath. American jurisprudence, as well as English common law, rejects testimony of atheists. Government appoints thanksgiving, fasting and prayer. Congress, navy, army, penal reformatory and beneficent institutions employ chaplains.
Christianity constitutes the most important part of the common law of our land. Listen. In the great case Updegraff v the Commonwealth, the solemn opinion pronounced by the Superior Court of Pennsylvania held that "Christianity, general Christianity, is and always has been part of the common law; not Christianity founded on any particular religious tenets; not Christianity with an established church and titles and spiritual courts; but Christianity with liberty of conscience to all men." And the court held that "Christianity is and always has been part of the common law of Pennsylvania."
We then equally in need now, as formerly, of all that moral discipline and of those principles of virtue which help to bind society together. The people of this state, in common with the people of this country, profess the general doctrines of Christianity as the rule of their faith and practice; and to scandalize the Author of these doctrines only, in a religious point of view, extremely impious; but even in respect to the obligations due to society, is a gross violation of decency and good order. The court met, distinctly and logically, the suggestion then made and which is still sometimes advanced with bold assumption, that the same rule must, under the Constitution, apply to any other religion.
"Nor are we," said the chief justice, "bound by any expression in the Constitution, as some have strongly supposed, eager not to punish at all or to punish indiscriminately the like attacks upon the religion of Muhammad or of the grand Llama; and for this plain reason, that the case assumes that we are a Christian people, and that the morality of the country is deeply engrafted upon Christianity, and not upon the doctrines or worship of these imposters." Story, judge of the Supreme Court of the United States agreed with this decision.
Shall we then consent to the doctrines and wise sayings of these imposters, to be placed side by side with the mutilated Bible in our public library, to be read or studied by our children? No, never. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth and my right hand forget her cunning, if I prefer not the Bible above my chief joy.
But one says: "You have no right to make a taxpayer pay for what he does not believe in; everybody has his rights."
That statement looks fair; but the logic of it would destroy the very foundation of our Constitution. For example, an invitation to all the oppressed of the world to come and share our liberties is not to be construed to give license for the destruction of our Protestant Christian civilization, [unreadable word] institutions and manners. We quote Dr. Ray in his work on national education:
"To me it seems that the principle which maintains that nothing can be done or provided by act of Parliament or by the will of any majority, however overwhelming, which infringes on what any man holds as his conscientious conviction, or which requires him to contribute toward the teaching of anything the religiously disproves or conscientiously rejects as false and of evil tendency, is a principal simply incompatible with national integrity or any form of Government. The Mormon professes to hold conscientious and religious convictions in antagonism with the morality recognized by our public law in this country. Even secular instruction is certain to include much which by implication, if not directly, is opposed to the religious opinions, which must stand, at least, for religious convictions of many rate payers, while the crude and untrue scientific teachings of many teachers will impinge as painfully against the conscientious convictions of our 'scientists,' to whom science is religion, as any headlong or erroneous religious dogmatism against the religious convictions of certain rate payers. For my part, I do not see why a man of science may not as conscientiously object to have to contribute any quota of rates for the teaching of false science as a secularist in religion for the teaching of religious dogma. In these matters the average want and claim of the great majority must be held to decide what ought to be done."
Court's authority: The Donahoe prochein ami versus Richards, a suit brought by a child for expulsion from school for refusing to read from a Protestant Bible, it was held that, with the superintendent, the school committee had "reposed the power of directing the general course of instruction, and what books should be used in the schools, and they may rightfully enforce obedience to all the regulations by them, made within the sphere of their authority. "For a refusal to read from a book as prescribed, the committee may, if they see fit, expel such disobedience collars.
"No scholar can escape or evade such requirement made by the committee, under the plea that his conscience will not allow the reading of such book.
"Nor can the ordinance be nullified because the church of which the scholar is a member holds or has instructed its members that it is a sin to read the book proscribed. A law is not unconstitutional because it may prohibit what one may conscientiously think right or require what one may conscientiously think wrong.
"A requirement of the superintending school committee that the Protestant version of the Bible should be read in the public schools of their town, by the scholars who are able to read, is in violation of no constitutional provision, and is binding upon all members of the school, although composed of diverse religious sects."
Chief justice Sheppley and Justices Tenney and Howard concurred: "The conscientious belief of religious duty furnishes no legal defense to the doing or refusing what the state, in the constitutional authority, may require. If it were so, the obligation of a statute would depend not upon the will of the state but upon its conformity with the religious conviction of its members."
On the face of this authority from educational sources and decrees of courts, ought there to be any doubt in any mind whether the state has the right to teach Christianity, even if objection is raised by those who do not believe in it? Certainly not. And, further than this, according to the logic of these authorities, the state is shut up to but one line of action - to teach the morals of the Protestant Christianity to its own preservation. And the decrees of courts remain the law where the law itself has not been made, and had the famous Cincinnati case, upon which Judge Welch gave judgment, been carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, Ohio would not be suffering the disgrace of playing loose with the very fundamentals of our government.
One more excuse: "Let them study the Bible at home." I say amen. If our homes were properly managed, perhaps there would not be so much reason for a discussion of this subject; but we must remember that a large number of children, who will soon arrive at the dignity of citizenship, receive no moral or religious instruction outside of schools, and remember that the moral side is of most importance, and the state must supply this. You will see the fallacy of this excuse.
We must demand that the state, assuming to teach its citizenship as a preparation for the responsibilities of citizenship, must not only recognize Christianity is the religion of the people, in conformity with historical and judicial precedent, but must require the teaching of Christian morality wherever education is supported by taxation or state grant.
Is it not high time for us, as a Christian Protestant nation, to get back to foundation principles upon which the life and integrity of the nation rests? Is it not high time for the people who give character to our civilization and stability to our government to assert themselves?
Let us banish this sickly sentimentality which says "charity for all," that, under hypocritical concession to religious freedom; retreats in the presence of Secularism, Atheism and Jesuitism.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1896
FROM OUR READERS
Communications on the All Absorbing Topic
DO THEY MEAN OUR BIBLE
Here Are Articles From Those Who Are Deeply Interested in the Children Now in Attendance at Uur Public Schools. What's the Matter With the Bible?
Akron, O. Feb. 17, 1896.
To THE NEWS REVIEW: - In reading your welcome paper, I see quite a controversy is going on in regard to the reading of the Bible in the public schools of your city. Having been a citizen of East Liverpool for a quarter of a century, and old subscriber of NEWS REVIEW, and a lover of public schools, I would simply ask you to inform me if the Bible in question is the same one the people this country spend millions of dollars sending to heathen lands to civilize them? Is it the same Bible the American Bible Society is distributing, and we have been contributing to these many years? Is this the Bible are Christian mothers cling to in their old age, and hold to as their anchor of hope? Is this the Bible which, when the death angel appears, most of us are willing to have read? Is it the one that teaches us the Golden rule? On leaving home, when a boy, and arriving at my destination of some thousand miles away, I unpacked my satchel, I found a Bible my mother placed there. I wonder if this is the same kind of book the difficulty is over in East Liverpool today? I have a picture, the scene, located in Washington city, the capital of the United States of America; among nations, classed as civilized; religious; Protestant. It represents a president being sworn; his hand rests upon a Bible. Is this the same Bible some people of your city would not have read to their children when it school? If this is the one they object to, they surely have no regard for the teachings of their good old mothers if they have proven it unfit to be read to children, what a waste of money is publishing the Bibles and the fortunes squandered in heathen lands to enlighten them, and the stupidity of an American president, and down to the home office holder, to swear on a Bible not fit to be read in an East Liverpool school. Why should the story of the Bible be rejected with its common law and wholesome guidance?
From Plymouth Rock to Golden Gate
Fear not the story to relate.
J. W. B.
Mr. Editor — May I ask, who columns of your estimable paper, a question or two in regard to the Bible affair? Suppose certain individuals are elected to office, and while there they go in direct opposition to the people; can anything be done? Or, in other words, has the school board a right to say "Throw out the Scriptures,"if the people say it must stay. Again, is Prof. Sanor opposed to the reading of the Bible or is he afraid of the board? Another question: is the board afraid of the enmity of the few Catholics and attend? I understand that one of our ministers said from the pulpit that he didn't know but what the board was right — that the Protestant Bible would be offensive to the Catholics in attendance. If the public school system has been organized and brought about by the Catholic people, then the Protestant Bible would be an insult to them and ought to be replaced by their own. If the board is so greatly opposed to the Bible reading, why do they think it would be proper for Miss Anna Shaw to deliver an address to the girls the schools? "God bless the public school system." What! As God blessed institution He has been thrown out of, or in which he has no right or part? Is it possible that God's rights are confined to the church alone? We admire the dear teacher's principles, and hope they will stick to the same, and God will stick to them. Citizen Taxpayer
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1896
NO MEETING WAS HELD
By the Board of Education Last Night.
SEVERAL TEACHERS PRESENT
Two Members of the Board Were Absent Last Night, and in View of the Important Matters aBefore Them, the Meeting Was Postponed.
The Board of Education did not meet last night, going owing to the absence of several members of board.
Messrs. Nellis, Owen and Golding and Mrs. Whitehead were present. Col. Taylor was absent and W. L. Smith is away in New York. Prof. Sanor and two school teachers, Ms. Florence Jessop and Miss. Little, were also present. Mr. Nellis arose and stated that it was a question to him whether the board should meet or not owing to the absence of several members. He said it might be advisable to postpone the meeting until next Monday. If anything of importance come up in the meantime to be acted upon by the board it would be an easy matter to call a special session. Member Golding coincided with Nellis in his remarks and added that as there were matters of deep moment to come before the board it would be best to defer any action on these matters until there was a full attendance present. He also said that this course should be followed out in defense of the absent members. The only Bill to be given attention was that from the Johnson Electric company for the remedying of the heating apparatus of the central building, that has been in defective condition. The system is in good working order now. Superintendent Sanor said that he had a report to make to the board at some future date, that he wished them to read carefully. Miss Jessop also had a paper that she wished to read and may present it next Monday night, the contents of which she firmly but politely refused to divulge to a pair of reporters, despite the fact of the eloquent and touching plea that they made. After a general handshake all around, interspersed with introductions, all present dispersed to their domiciles.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1896
Here are Telling Pointers for Consideration
IS PRESENT BORAD BONAFIDE
Liverpool Citizens Will Be Deeply Interested In the Solution of this Legal Problem — Numerous Citizens Insist That Legal Form Shall Rule.
And now it is asserted, and seems to have solid and unanswerable legal work to back it, that are present school board has not been legally formed, and that a number of members to step down and out. Further than this, authority which should be reliable, and which can be brought forward if necessary, states that some of the members of the present board are and have been acquainted with this fact in the law and have been keeping quiet on the subject. The matter will be fully ventilated, and friends of the Bible ( and their name is Legion) will see to it that the law shall be conformed to. Through the kindness of attorneys Travis and Hasson, we are enabled to publish the statues on this question. They speak for themselves. Read carefully and I just at your leisure:
Section 3898, Revised Statue Ohio says: in each city district of the first-class, and not of the first or second grade, the Board of Education shall consist of two members from each ward except in city districts organized under a law providing for one member only from each ward, in which districts the board may, at any time, by a vote of majority of all its members, provide that thereafter each ward shall be represented by two members, and thereupon proceed to choose one additional member for each ward, to serve until the next annual election for city officers, and until the election and qualifications of his successor; and each member of the board shall be an elector of the Ward for which he was elected or appointed, and at every annual election for city officers in a city which constitutes districts of the first class, wherein the board consists of two members for each ward, there shall be elected in each ward, by the qualified electors thereof, one and competent person to serve as a member of the board of education of the districts for two years from the third Monday of April succeeding his election and until the election and qualification; provided, that at the annual election for city officers, held first after a city has been constituted a city districts of first-class, with a board to consist of two members from each ward, there shall be elected in each Ward of such city, by the qualified electors of each Ward, and of said district entitled to vote in such wards, two persons of the required qualifications to serve as members of the Board of Education of such districts, one for one year and the other for two years from the third Monday of April succeeding their election and until the election and qualifications of their successors; and provided that any Elector residing in such district, but not in any Ward of such city, shall, if the territory containing his residence is not been attached to any Ward for school purposes, as provided in section 3900, be entitled to vote for members of the school board in the Ward nearest his residence, and in such case a separate ballot box and poll book shall be provided and used, as required in section 2902, in each Ward where any such Elector may be entitled to vote; when the Board of Education in such city district of the first-class consists of as many members as there are wards shall be elected, at the annual election for city officers in the year 1880, and every two years thereafter, in each Ward designated by an even number, and in the year 1881, and every two years thereafter each Ward designated by an odd number by the qualified electors thereof, one member of the board who shall hold his office for two years; and until the election and qualification of his successor. Passed March 21, 1887.
Section 3886, revised statutes of Ohio, says: "Each city having a population of 10,000 or more, including the territory attached to it for school purposes, and excluding the territory within its corporate limits detached for school purposes, shall constitute a school district, to be styled a city district of the first-class; and each district that has heretofore been constituted a school district of the first-class shall remain such." This law was passed in March 15, 1888.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, MONDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1896
Rev. Lee speaks out
In Meetin', and Advocates Reading the Bible
Also Talks to Businessmen
A Large Number Of Business Men Present At The First Presbyterian Church Last Night --- Rev. Lee Relates An Incident Of His Life Respecting The Bible.
There was a large audience present at the First Presbyterian Church on Sunday morning, when the pastor took for his subject the Bible, God's word. The reverend gentleman was listened to with the deepest attention as he traced the history of the nations of the earth, showing how those who cast aside the Bible, the book of books, were cursed in consequence of the action, and became in a marked degree, debased and degraded, while those who builded upon the Bible, built upon the rock --- upon an everlasting and absolutely secure foundation, and were blessed and prospered upon every hand. The speaker pointed to educational advantages, and showed how, by indisputable statistics, those nations which advocated the Bible and its use, reached a high and enviable percentage from an educational standpoint. Referring to the reading of the Bible in the public schools of East Liverpool, the reverend gentleman cited an instance in his own life, the pith of which we give in the following quotation:
"I was teaching school in Ohio some 11 years ago. It was my habit to read the Bible and pray every morning, at the opening of school. One day I had quite an exciting time with three of my largest male pupils, and finally settled the matter with them to my entire satisfaction. Immediately after this episode, three directors of the school waited upon me, and the spokesman of the party, after beating about the bush considerably, stated that the reading of the Bible took up too much time, and that I must discontinue the reading of the blessed book. I told them that they were in authority, but that in this particular I had higher authority; that I would quit teaching that evening, or continue to teach for them until they secured another teacher; but that, in the meantime, I would continue the reading and praying. The directors adjourned and held a conference, and then one of their number, a bluff, hardy farmer, came in and said: 'I've been talkin' this matter over with the other directors, and seein' as how you managed them three big fellers of the school so well, we've concluded that you can go right ahead teachin', and read and pray if you've a mind to.'"
There were many persons present who would have loved to applaud at this moment, and would have done so with hardy zeal, had it not been for the surroundings.
At the night service, portions of the letters were read from businessmen in East Liverpool, and the comments made by the pastor evidently struck the keynote of approval in the minds of businessmen assembled. The speaker earnestly advocated the plan of purchasing from home merchants, thus assisting the men who have capital invested in our city and building up home industries. He cited cases where he had dealt with foreign firms, and stated that he had been beaten every time. He argued that purchasers should treat businessmen right, and have confidence in them as the majority of businessmen in the city are fair and honorable in their dealings. He spoke in scathing terms, denouncing the man who professes to be a Christian, and who will not pay his debts or make every effort to do so. He also stated that, if the purchaser bought an article which proved to be damaged, or otherwise than represented by the merchant from whom it was bought, the just man should not attempt to injure the merchant until he had first taken the goods back to him, told his story, and given him an opportunity to make matters right. Then the speaker cited an incident which occurred to himself in this city, in the purchase of a pair of unmentionables, where the merchant acknowledged the goods to be injured, made them good, and was himself reimbursed by the wholesale house.
This subject will be continued by Rev. Lee, and the business man's duty to the purchaser will be enlarged upon.
Comments on the Bible question by Rev. Talmage of Pittsburgh.
The following is an extract from a sermon preached by Rev. Talmage yesterday:
Now comes the practical question, 'How can we wage war against the directors who have thrown the Bible how our public schools?' In one way, and one way only: by putting the blame where it belongs. In every board you will find one or two men who control all the other directors, and where there is any opposition to the Bible, in 99 cases out of 100 you will find that man's private life bad.
"Only the other day a fellow minister from another town in this struggle came and asked my advice what to do. I immediately asked: what are the characters of the men on the board? "Oh,' he answered, 'the chief of police only the other day told me that he found three of them in a disorderly house which he was rating after midnight.' Of course, of course. Just what I expected. There is only one saying for you to do, if you have the backbone to do it. Collect your evidence and stand up in the pulpit and tell who the directors are and what they have been doing. It is not the Bible which ought to be put on trial, but their own filthy lies. Shoot them. Fight them. Expose them."
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1896
School Board Angry
The Christian Endeavor Society Is Lacking in Respect.
SO SAT SOME OF THE DIRECTORS
The "Bible in the School" Question Was the Topic Last Night -- Some of the Teachers Declare They Will Read the Book of Books -- What Will the Harvest Be? --- The East End Trouble -- The Heat Question.
The Board of Education met last night, and the session which followed was one of the stormiest and most exciting that has marked the existence of the board. A communication was received from the Christian Endeavor Society of the United Presbyterian Church, characterizing the board, in regard to the prohibiting of the reading of the Bible in the schools as dishonoring God and His sacred word. The contents of the missive aroused the ire of several members of the board, and they expressed themselves in no uncertain manner. Communications from Jason H. Brooks and the Smead Heating and Ventilating company were also received. Messrs. Smith, Owen, Taylor and Nellis and Mrs. Whitehead were present, as were Superintendent Sanor and two of the schoolteachers, Miss Florence Jessop and Miss Little. Member Golding is out of town.
President Smith called the meeting to order and the clerk read the minutes of the last meeting. They were approved as read. The next business taken up was the disposition of bills. Following are the bills: Andy Rattay, $350; Greenwood School Supply Company; $10.50; William H. Kenney, $71.74; Thompson Electric Company, $583. These bills were all ordered paid without very much discussion.
The bill of the Thompson Electric Company brought forth some talk. Mr. Taylor thought that somebody should examine it and see if it was correct. Mr. Nellis then stated that the system was in good working order, and on the strength of this information, Mr. Taylor said the bill should be paid; a motion to that effect was made and it carried. Miss Little then arose and stated that she and Miss Jessop had received instructions sometime since that they should discontinue the reading of the Bible in the public schools. They had disobeyed his order and felt it their duty to inform the board. Mr. Smith asked if they had consulted with Superintendent Sanor in regard to this matter. They said that they had, and that they did not care to enter into a lengthy discussion of the matter before the board. Nellis stated that, in his opinion, the teachers were supposed to act under instructions from the Superintendent, and if they had any grievance to ventilate it should be placed in writing, and come before the board's notice through the Superintendent. Members Taylor and Smith also agreed that it would be proper to follow out that plan. Mrs. Whitehead stated that perhaps it would be better if the teachers would place the report in writing and give it to Mr. Sanor. Mr. Sanor arose and stated that he had advised the teachers not to appear before the board in person. "I admit that they have a right to complain, if they so desire, but the proper course for them to pursue is to make a report out in writing and bring it before the notice of the board through the proper channel." The teachers then arose, bade all goodnight and left.[ Here follows a proposal on the furnace along with discussion of the situation ]
Then came the sensation of the evening, a red hot roast from the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor, of the United Presbyterian Church, vigorously denouncing the action of the board to throwing out the Bible from the public schools, and warmly commending Mrs. Whitehead for the decided standard that she had taken on this question. Appended is the communication:
"The following action was taken by the Christian Endeavor Society, First United Presbyterian Church, February 23, 1896:
The good citizenship committee of the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor, of the first United Presbyterian Church, would respectfully submit the following, and recommends the adoption of the same by our society:
Whereas the school board of our city have seen fit, by the action of a majority of its members, to prohibit the reading of the Bible in our public schools; and
Whereas, they have dishonored God and his sacred word, and misrepresented our Christian civilization by placing the Holy Scriptures on the parent key with the literature of the heathen religions of the world, therefore be it
Resolved, that as a Society of Christian Endeavorers, we hereby protest against the position taken by our board, as misrepresenting our Christian religion.
Second, that we respectfully request our Board of Education to reconsider the above action, and remove the stigma they have placed on the Bible and the Christian religion.
Third --- That we most heartily approve the stand taken by Mrs. Whitehead, the lady member of the board, in voting against said action.
Fourth -- That we extend our warmest sympathy to the teachers who insist upon their right to read the Bible in the school of our city. That as citizens we will use every right means in our power to secure the election of members of the school board who will, if elected, honor God's written Word.
Fifth -- that this be placed on record by the society and the copy placed in the hands of the Board of Education.
Christian Endeavor Society
First U. P. Church
To say that the communication created a perfect storm of upheaval is expressing it in a tame manner. When the members recovered their composure, Mr. Smith blandly asked what action should be taken in regard to this interesting epistle. Mr. Tyler, almost choking with indignation, vehemently replied, "I move that no action be taken; some of the language in that communication is not respectable. I take it for granted, from the action that they have taken, that they consider that the board are a set of heathen, who would rather worship mammon than God. The idea! It is preposterous." Mrs. Whitehead said "I do not consider the board as a set of heathen, and I think that the paper is a good one." Mr. Owen then declared himself. He said: "I think that these people are lamentably ignorant of the true situation or else they have been sadly misinformed. Someone should tell them of their mistake."
Mr. Taylor --- I would like to see a communication couched in decent language, and then we would give it consideration.
Mrs. Whitehead was the only member of the board apparently overlooked with any degree of favor upon the paper, and she stated that she would like to see a copy of the petition placed upon the minutes. "I don't think, Mr. Taylor, they made it to be disrespectful."
Mr. Taylor, sarcastically -- Then they have a most peculiar way of expressing themselves. [Laughter.] The petition is a misrepresentation of the facts, and is either disrespectful or caused by ignorance.
Mr. Nellis meekly added that some examination into this affair might be advisable. Mrs. Whitehead returned that there had been some examination given this matter -- very close examination. The lady member of the board then made a motion that the report be received, but not being seconded it did not pass. By this time the board had cooled down sufficiently to proceed with the next business.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1896
Rev. J. C. Taggart,
Pastor of the first U. P. Church, talks to the school board.
The following communication from the pen of one of East Liverpool's staunchest and most conservative citizens speaks, in tones not to be misunderstood, on the question of the Bible in our public schools:
"Editor News Review --- permit me a word on the action of the Board of Education in reference to the paper presented to them by the Young People's Society Christian Endeavor of my church, as reported in last evening's papers. I wish to say, first of all, that I am not responsible for the paper, by way of dictation or suggestion. I knew nothing of it till it was read before the society. This was done near the close of the Sabbath evening meeting, when there was no time for discussion, or some forms of expression in it might have been changed. The general import of the paper met with my party at probation, and it was adopted by the unanimous vote of the society. The only regret I have in this matter is that the purpose of the committee and the desire of the society and having all the Young People's societies of the different churches to unite with them in presenting this, or a similar paper, to the board, was not carried out before our paper was given to the board. The other societies will please note that this was the intention of our committee, and that they had a meeting on Monday evening to arrange for it, when it was found that the paper was already before the board. We hope that they will still act in the way they think best, so they are Board of Education may know that not only the patriotic orders of the city, concerning him a certain members of the board have charged that they've failed to read the Bible at home, but that the hosts of young Christians in our city, who do read it every day, are not satisfied with the actions they have taken on the reading of the Bible in our schools.
Now a word as to the paper of our Young People's Society. Is it disrespectful? Is it worthy of recognition by our honorable board? Does it stab anything but the truth? Was not the paper of adopted by the board, and given to the public in our daily papers, "a dishonoring of God and his Word and a misrepresentation of our Christian civilization?" Let that paper, adopted with only one dissenting vote, give the answer. We judge them only by the record they have made. While they profess to believe that the Bible is the inspired word of God, they go on to say that they do not think that it should be read as such in our schools. In reference to this, we can have some respects to their opinion, for while we believe it to be wrong, we recognize the fact that many good men have advocated the same views. But when they go on to say that they are willing that the Bible, or part of it, should come into our schools, but only on a level with the sacred writings of the pagan and false religions of the world, then we have a right to say, and if we speak of it at all we are bound to say, they have done dishonor to God and His word and have misrepresented the Christian sentiment of our people.
We cannot call their action heathenish, for the heathen would scarcely place the writings of other religions on a par with their own; but is it not in direct conflict with the honor due to the God of the Bible, who says: "My glory will I not give to another; neither my praise to graven images?" I submit to the members of the board, who feel so indignant at the paper of our young people, that if they really believe that the Bible is God's word, enhance our supreme authority in all matters of life and morals, that their own conscience should tell them that they have been guilty of dishonoring that word, as well as misrepresenting the Christian sentiment of this community, and that every self-respecting Christian has a right to protest against their action, and to continue to do so till it is rescinded.
J. C. Taggart, Pastor First U. P. Church.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1896
WILL READ IT
The Bible Will Again Be read by the Teachers
One teacher who was ordered to discontinue the use of the Bible in schools complied with request for the time being. Influence being brought to bear, she was prevailed upon, as a matter of principle, to take up the Bible again and continue the use of the book in the future, as in the past, regardless of consequences that might follow. The stand that the teachers are now taking deserves commendation and the citizens should show their appreciation of this attitude right.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1896
AND STILL ANOTHER >
Can Mr. Chop-Her-Head-Off Believe the People in Ernest.
EDITOR NEWS REVIEW — In the report of proceedings of the board of education published in your issue of Tuesday evening was a copy of a communication from the Young Peoples Society of Christian Endeavor, of the First United Presbyterian Church. Is it not a fact that a member of the board, in conversation with reporter of your paper not long since, said that people in general did not want the Bible when schools; that it was only the patriotic societies wanted it. Well then, the Young Peoples society of Christian Endeavor must be a patriotic society. Can a man or a woman be a Christian without being patriotic? Certainly not; because the Bible, which they all loved so much, ( and which our school board, with the exceptions of Mrs. Whitehead, do not appear to have very much love for) is full of patriotic and loyal teachings. Do the teachers want the Bible in schools? We have heard from two of them; about the other 42? Will they expressed themselves one way or the other, or are they afraid of the man with his little hatchet?
How about the other Christian Endeavor societies and Epworth leagues, and women's Christian Temperance Union in the church congregations. Would it not be fair for all of these to express themselves in some public manner? Then we would know just where we are at and just about how much true patriotism we have in the city. It might be that some of the candidates for the different city and county offices might feel like expressing themselves. Why not ask, for your columns column that the above-named societies as well as candidates for office, publicly express themselves. Let's hear from everybody. Turn on the light. I don't propose to sign my name to this for you well know that it is sometimes best to withhold names from the public, and some people in town know it too. CITIZEN
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 29, 1896
THE BOARD'S ACTION
Will Be Taken Up by Good Citizens.
the Board of Education asked Ms. little for her resignation at a meeting held yesterday afternoon — miss little interviewed by a reporter
the Board of Education met in their office yesterday afternoon and asked Miss. Little for her resignation, because she would not conform to their wishes in regard to the reading of the Bible in the schools. The board was not a unit in this matter, as Mrs. R B. Whitehead took the side of Miss. Little
Miss Little was seen by reporter this morning and stated: "the Board of Education called me into their office yesterday afternoon, and asked me to use the Bible merely as a reference book historical work. I told them that when it comes to placing the Bible on the level with those books, I simply could not do it. Ever since I've been teaching school I've been reading it to my scholars. There was a vote taken in my room by the children in regard to reading it and all were in favor of the Bible, and since then they've been bringing their own Bibles and reading it responsively. I understand this was what the board wanted me to give up. The board asked me for my resignation, and I now consider that I am formally dismissed, I have nothing to say against the board or Superintendent Sanor, but only think I did my duty."
Miss Little has been employed in the schools here for three years past, and has always given the best of satisfaction, as we have it from reliable authority that Prof. Sanor stated, in a conversation some time ago, that the lady was one of the best teachers on his force, and he could tell it when he went into her room, from the fact that she imparted her superior knowledge to her scholars.
Miss Florence Jessop was seen this morning and stated she told the board that she would discontinue the responsive reading, as she would have lost her position had she refused. The board said the teachers as a reference book historical work, but that responsive reading a cease. Miss Jessop stated that she thought she could do more good by complying with the board's wishes than refusing.
Mrs. Whitehead said: "I was very much pleased by the stand taken by Miss. Little, and voted very emphatically do not ask for her resignation. I was also surprised the action of Miss Jessop."
Representative citizens of the city, men of wealth and influence, were seen this morning, and our unit and declaring Miss Little should refuse to resign her position. The action of the board will be taken up by good citizens in the matter probed the bottom. there seem to be a demand for immediate action among conservative citizens, and there is strong talk of calling a mass meeting. Our ministers should take the lead at once.
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1896
HOLD ON TO THE BIBLE
Action of the Christian Endeavor Society
OF THE SECOND PRESBYTERIAN
Church of the East End — A Paper Read Before the Endeavors on Sunday and Unanimously Endorsed by that body. Turn on the Light.
A paper read before the Christian Endeavor, by Mrs. L. A. Vale, and endorsed by the entire body.
"Hold on to the Bible,"
All honor is due Mrs. Rev. Whitehead and Miss Little, and too much can not be said in praise of their Christian character, and the stand they have taken against the attempt to remove the Bible from our public schools. God's blessing will rest upon them. I denounce the action of the Board of Education, and regard the prohibition of the reading of the Bible to the children of our public schools as a deadly blow aimed at our true American institutions; a blow at the very vitals of our American freedom. How can the reading of God's word to the children of our schools conflict in any way with religious views of any sect or denomination, for it teaches Christ and him only? There is but one God, the God of all creeds, the God of all races, the God of all nationalities, the God of the whole universe and ruler over all. It does not teach Methodism, it is not teach Presbyterianism, it does not teach Universalism, it is not teach Catholicism, or any other ism. He does not say to belong to any creed or denomination. He says "believe that I am the Christ and I'll shall be saved."
We are all aiming at the one great point, heaven. It matters not which route we take, whether we board the Presbyterian car, or the Methodist motor, for the Catholic cable, or the Baptist steamer. It is not matter which route we take, what mode of travel we adopt, so that we may Kevin the great terminus. And when the Board of Education removes the Bible from our public schools they become human soul robbers; they rob countless numbers of poor unfortunate children who are born to ungodly parents; children who never see inside the Sabbath school; children who never passed to the portals of church edifice; robs them of the only chance they have of hearing of Christ's wonderful love to mankind; and that she did not hear it read in school room, they would not here at all. If we, as true, loyal American citizens submit to this, then it is only a question of time till we will be called to witness the stretching forth of the same lecherous and grasping the folds of our dear old flag, tearing it from its fastening and trampling it underfoot; all this for fear we will wound the political feeling of our foreign brother, to whom we have extended the hand of welcome to come over and enjoy the blessed privileges of our true American institutions, which has been purchased by the sacrifice of millions of human lives of brave loyal fathers, husbands, brothers and sons, who tore themselves away from home and loved ones, went at their country's call, suffering privation, starvation, dying upon the battlefield, and in prison pens; gave up all, endured all, suffered all, to secure the blessing we enjoy, are true American institutions, and that they be maintained; and just so sure as we let go are hold upon the Bible, just that sure the dear old flag will follow suit.
I appeal to every loyal American citizen to stand firm and cry out against this outrage and insult to God; for if we do give way, the first step is gained for a Monarchial government and all is lost.
Mr. L. A. Vale
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1896
A MOTHER'S PLEA.
EDITOR NEWS REVIEW — Will you kindly allow mother space for a few words in regard to the action of the "school board" in discharging one of the teachers in our public schools, because she forsooth was unwilling to make her conscience as accommodating as accommodating as their own, if, indeed, they happen to have any?
Personally I am unacquainted with Miss. Little, but, through her influence over one of my children whom she has instructed, I know her to be in earnest, loyal, Christian woman, having in her "that in mind which was also in Christ Jesus."
And she, it seems, must give way in order that one less loyal, and true, perhaps, maybe put her place. Oh, it is the ones of tender conscience, we mothers would have to instruct our little ones! I thank God for this living witness, who may be sure, will not stand alone in this crucial test.
If all the teachers who profess to be Christians were to stand together in this matter, and insist upon being allowed their liberty of conscience, the board would scarcely dare refuse. Out upon such a weak kneed Christianity as well allow these things to be. But God can make "even the wrath of man to praise him,"and the Christian people of East Liverpool are getting their eyes opened; and those who were once weak and timid and now "coming up to the help of the Lord"against the mighty evil at work in our midst.
I, as a woman, rejoice in the privilege which ?????? has gained to vote on the question now before us, of the use of the Bible in our schools, and may we do so when the opportunity is once more given, by placing not only one or two, but a Christian members are school board is the prayer in his name, of
A King's Daughter
From THE EVENING NEWS REVIEW , EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO, MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1896
By Many Yooung People's Societies Last Night
TO BE PRESENTED TO THE BOARD
The Board of Education Will Meet Tonight and Will Have Its Hands Full of Business — A Petition Has Been Offered Miss Little
The Board of Education will meet tonight LF Tony of business to transact. Several resolutions will be presented from young peoples' societies, and a number of East End people will be present to see what action the board takes in regards to investigation.
[There were two situations going on at the same time in the school district in East Liverpool. The Bible being read in school and another regarding an investigation into reports of children being hurt at school in several schools especially in tne East End. Thus the referecne to East End in the above article].
The following is a resolution adopted by the Epworth league at First M. E. Church last night:
To the president and members of the Board of Education of the city of East Liverpool, Ohio. Greeting.
We, the members of the Epworth league of the first M. E. Church, of East Liverpool, Ohio, executive session assembled, respectively submit the following Memorial to your honorable body, and earnestly hope that you will give it the attention that such an important and vital matter demands:
We have you heard, with feelings of deep regret, that it is the opinion of your honorable body that the holy Bible, the inspired word of God, should not be read in the public schools of the city of East Liverpool. We believe that you have not given this question the consideration that a matter of such vital importance merits. To us, the Bible is God's word, and our heavenly father has commanded us to search the Scriptures. To us, there is not the shadow of evil in the blessed volume; on the contrary, it contains a very essence of all that is holy, right, pure and true. It teaches us to observe the Golden rule. It teaches the children to obey their parents. It implants the seeds of honesty in the mind of youth. it advocates and teaches purity and social life. The commands one and all to be pure and true in both private and public. It is a most wonderful educator. Obedience to its teachings purifies the heart, the home, the village, the town, the city, the Township, the County, the district, the state, the nation. In a nutshell, is God's own word, given for the control and guidance of humankind. The reading of the book of books by the teachers of our public schools, can do no harm: it may do infinite good to you and yours. The Bible must be the bulwark of this nation. God's curse will fall upon that people who reject his word. We believe the very large majority of your constituents, the parents of the boys and girls in the schools of which you have control, desire that the Bible shall be read to the pupils by the teachers.
Members of the school board, taking all these features into consideration, we present to you this Memorial, praying that our God may so alter your hearts and lives as to cause you to rescind your late action respecting the reading of the Bible in the public schools of East Liverpool, and that you'll give the reading of the precious word of our heavenly father, the schools under your control, your unanimous consent
First M.E. Church
East Liverpool, Ohio
What Eminent Authority Says About the book.
The following will be read with particular interest at the present time, as it bears directly on the subject now before the people.
"So great is my verneration for the Bible that the earlier my children begin to read it, the more confident will be my hopes that they will prove useful citizens to their country, and respectable members of society." John Quincy Adams.
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